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阅读理解基础-长难句核心方法论 考研英语考上的逻辑

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课程目录

01.长难句的逻辑lesson1.如何抓主干

02.长难句的逻辑lesson2.非主干类型

03.长难句的逻辑lesson3.文章实战及从句关系

新东方时期版本\01.主干

新东方时期版本\02.非主干

新东方时期版本\03.真题句型结构案例

新东方时期版本\04.文章分析

新东方时期版本\05.从句关系

 

 

阅读理解

阅读理解 —— 长难句

翻译难句的平均词数 35-45 之间

Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which,in its strongest from,states that language imprisons the mind,and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce farreaching consequences for the culture of a society.(2004)

But that,Pearson points out,is only the start of man-machine integration:“It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century.”(2001)

1999 年 passage5 (46 词 + 50 词 )
It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the “odd balls” among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who “work well with the team.”

 

2010 年
篇幅 450 词
平均 15 句话
60. The growth of limited liability companies resulted in ___.
[A] the separation of capital from management
[B] the ownership of capital by managers
[C] the emergence of capital and labour as two classes
[D] the participation of shareholders in municipal business
The growth of the limited liability company and municipal business had important
consequences. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the
numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing
irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally
detached from the responsible management of business.

总结—长难句是出题的重点

非谓语动词
介词结构 {作状语、作后置定语}

与语法转向课程的区别
与词汇课程同时进行

长难句阅读
1、主干 — 三步
2、非主干 —- 句型结构
3、从句关系

1、主干 — 三步
1、连词
2、动词(谓语 ;非谓语)
3、介词
Tangchi is singing,
XD is dancing .

1、并列连词
1) and or
2) but yet
总结—并列连词连接前后相同成分 从后往前判断

2、从属连词
1)、 无词义,不做成分: that if / whether
2)、连接代词:who,whom,whose,what,which,whatever, whoever, whichever
3)、连接副词:when,where,why,how,however,whenever,wherever
总结 1、连词
并列: and or / but yet
从属: W + that

2、谓语动词
1)第一二人称 + 动词原形/ 第三人称单数
2)be + Ving
3)情态动词 + do
4)have / has / had + done
5)be + done

96-1 While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your “wares” and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.

 

总结—学语法的目的是做正确的翻译

96-1 In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.

总结—一句话中连词与谓语动词的数量关系是 : n 与 n+1

96-1 In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.

for prep 为了
conj 因为

53. According to the passage, one must write an account of himself before starting to find a job because ______.
[A] that is the first step to please the employer
[B] that is the requirement of the employer
[C] it enables him to know when to sell his services
[D] it forces him to become clearly aware of himself

总结—学语法的目的是做正确的翻译 在正确的翻译基础之上才能作对题
96-1 You can make a mental blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday living.
as prep 作为
conj 像…一样; 当….时; 因为;尽管

00 -3 When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.

补充:
宾语从句: I believe ( that god is a girl ).
主语从句: (That god is a girl ) is obvious .
It is obvious ( that god is a girl ).
It is + adj / Ved + that

此时与这段课程开始之前,是否已经感觉到不同了?

3、介词
in on at of off with
介词引导的成分永远不做主干
主语 定语 a book on the desk
谓语 状语 On Sunday morning , we come to XDF to study English.

宾语 补语

96-1 In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.
05-3 Of all the components of a good night’s sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control.
10-1 Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and
seriousness of their arts coverage. 10 -1 It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to
imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers.

总结—碰到长句子,先去掉介词及其引导的成分(名词),进行简化
“青海长云暗雪山,
孤城遥望玉门关。
黄沙百战穿金甲,
不破楼兰终不还。”

2、非主干 —- 句型结构
1、——,S+V+O
1)状语从句 When I was young, I could play football.
2)介词结构 On Sunday morning, we go to school .
3)分词结构 Finishing my home work, I start to watch TV.
4)独立主格 He finishing his homework , I start to watch TV.
5)副词 Surprisingly, he is still alive.

2、S,—— V+ O
1)状语从句 I,when I was young could play football.
2)介词结构 We,on Sunday morning, go to school.
3)分词结构 I,finishing my home work, start to watch TV.
4)独立主格 I, he finishing his homework, start to watch TV.
5)副词 He, surprisingly, is still alive.
6)定语从句 Shanghai , which is a moving city, is my hometown.
7)名词结构 Shanghai, a moving city is my hometown.

3、S+V+O,——
1)状语从句 I could play football,when I was young.
2)介词结构 We go to school, on Sunday morning .
3)分词结构 I start to watch TV,finishing my home work.
4)独立主格 I start to watch TV, he finishing his homework.

5)副词 He is still alive, surprisingly.
6)定语从句 I love Shanghai, which is a moving city.
7)名词结构 I love Shanghai, a moving city.
经典老歌: yesterday once more
When I was young , I’d listen to the radio, waiting for my favorite song.

 

真题句型结构案例

______ , S+V+O 2003 年 Text4
Shielded by third-party payers from the cost of our care, we demand everything that can possibly be done for us, even if it’s useless.
由于医疗费用由第三方支付,我们常常要求用尽所有的医疗手段,即使它们不会有任何作用。

______ , S+V+O 2004 年 Text1 L1
Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder, a job database on the Internet.
去年年末,甘特·雷德曼律师在找工作时偶然在网上发现职业资料库“职业建筑师”。

总结—根据语法,翻译各个分句意思
结合语境,选择合适的关联词
连接各个分句,使得意思更加通畅

_____ , S+V+O 英语二 2012 text1
But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades , students can easily skip half their homework and see very little difference on their report cards.
然而由于家庭作业占到成绩的比例不超过 10%,学生就能轻易逃避一半的作业,而且成绩单上几乎看不出任何差别。

S , ______ +V+O 2003 年 Text4
Physicians — frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient — too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified.
Physicians,frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient,too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified.
医生因为受挫于不能治愈疾病,同时又担心病人失去希望,所以常常采用极端大胆的治疗方法,这些方法远远超出了科学能够认同的界限。

S , ______ +V+O 1999 年 Passage3
But, for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not.
______ ,S +V+O +(since 连词)+ S , ______ +V+O

但是对少数学生而言,职业培训也许是可取之路,因为在其他因素相同的情况下,熟练的技能是能否得到工作的关键。

 

S +V+O , ______ 2001 年 Passage3
Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low-level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head-scratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want.
遗憾的是,这次新闻机构可信度调查计划结果只获得了一些肤浅的发现,诸如新闻报道中的事实错误,拼写或语法错误,和这些低层次发现交织在一起的还有许多令人挠头的困惑,譬如读者到底想读些什么。

S +V+O , ______ 2003 年 Text3 L1
In recent years, railroads have been combining with each other, merging into super systems, causing heightened concerns about monopoly.
近年来,铁路公司相互联合,(进而)组成了超大型集团,(从而)引起人们对垄断行为的极大关注。

S +V+O , ______ 英语二 2010 年 Text4
In 1968, the Congress of the United States passed the Jury Selection and Service Act, ushering in a new era of democratic reforms for the jury.
1968 年,美国国会通过了《陪审团选举与服务法案》,从而开启了陪审团制度民主改革的新纪元。

S +V+O , ______ 英语二 2012 年 Text3
Firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy.
公司正在研究基因是如何相互作用,寻找基因之间的联系,而这些联系可以用来判断疾病的起因或者预测药物的功效。

S +V+O , ______ 英语二 2012 年 Text2
When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength.
______ ,S +V+O , ______ , ______
当托儿所色彩引入后,粉红色当时被认为是更有男性特征的颜色,红色的柔和版,与力量相关。

 

文章分析 1996 passage3
In the last half of the nineteenth century “capital” and “labour” were enlarging and perfecting their rival organisations on modern lines.
Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers.
The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of familyfirms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.

e.g., 长定从的翻译 英语二 2012 年 Text3
Firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy.
公司正在研究基因是如何相互作用,为了去寻找基因之间的联系,而这些联系可以用来判断疾病的起因或者预测药物的功效。
It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and state-owned business.
The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business.
总结—1. n + Ved
2. 介词结构
3. 定语从句

 

3、从句关系
动词 + that
宾语从句:I believe that you can make it.
表语从句:The fact is that god is a girl.
主语从句:That god is a girl is obvious.
It is obvious that god is a girl.

名词 + that
同位语从句:I have a piece of news to you that you get an offer from Yale.
定语从句: I have a piece of news to you that comes from Yale.
宾语从句: I believe that you can make it.
表语从句: The fact is that god is a girl.
主语从句: That god is a girl is obvious.
It is obvious that god is a girl.
同位语从句:I have a piece of news to you that you get an offer from Yale.
定语从句: I have a piece of news to you that comes from Yale.

总结—除了定语从句,其他都引导成分完整的句子。
因为定从的 that 是关系代词
定语从句: I have a piece of news to you that comes from Yale.
I love the girl who is beautiful.

例 1:However, for many years physicists thought that atoms and molecules always were much more likely to emit light spontaneously and that stimulated emission thus always would be much
weaker.

例 2:It appeared that Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution.

例 3:The history of clinical nutrition, or the study of the relationship between health and how the body takes in and utilizes food substances, can be divided into four distinct eras: the first began in
the nineteenth century and extended into the early twentieth century when it was recognized for the first time that food contained constituents that were essential for human function and that different foods provided different amounts of these essential agents.

1999 年 Passage3

Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen , a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently assess how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself.
我们更应该具有的是作为美国公民的某种观念,即他必须准确判断自身的生活和幸福是如何受到外界影响的,否则他的公民特征就是不完整的。

2002 text4

Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of “double effect “, a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects — a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen — is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.

 

 

以上资料来自于:

考上的逻辑2021考研新东方唐迟长难句的逻辑

想详细学习的可以去拍上面的全套视频教程。

 

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